What is a steroid?
A steroid is a terpenoid lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton with four fused rings. All steroids are made in cells either from the sterol lanosterol or the sterol cycloartenol. Both sterols are derived from the cyclization of the triterpene squalene.
What are Anabolic Steroids?
Anabolic steroids, also known as anabolic-androgenic steroids or AAS, are a class of steroid hormones related to the hormone testosterone which is known to build muscle tissue & to cause the development of male secondary sex characteristics. Anabolic steroids are synthetic hormones that can boost the body's ability to produce muscle and prevent muscle breakdown. Anabolic steroids are man made derivatives of the male hormone "testosterone".
How do steroids work?
Various steroids (of which testosterone is one) have been taken to enhance muscle development, strength, or endurance. They do so directly by increasing the muscles' protein synthesis. As a result muscle fibers become larger and repair faster than the average person's. It may cause increases in muscle bulk, mood change (aggression), hair loss, deepened voice, acne and infertility as the side effects.
What are the medical uses of anabolic steroids?
Anabolic steroids have been used by physicians for many purposes like Bone marrow stimulation, Growth stimulation, Stimulation of appetite and preservation and increase of muscle mass, Induction of male puberty, hormone replacement therapy.
What are the side effects of steroids?
Steroid use is well known to increase the risk for certain medical conditions. Although many of the physiological and psychological changes associated with anabolic steroid use may be transient (e.g. lipid profile changes, elevated blood pressure, acne), individuals with underlying disease may be at risk for serious adverse events. In women, some of the masculinizing effects from steroid may be permanent, and steroid use by adolescent males may prematurely arrest longitudinal bone growth, resulting in prematurely reaching their maximum height.
What are the adverse effects of anabolic steroids?
Most of its side effects are dose dependent. The most common are blood pressure with pre-existing hypertension, harmful changes in cholesterol levels. It increases the risk of cardiovascular disease or coronary artery disease, enlargement and thickening of the left ventricle, cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, heart attacks, and sudden cardiac death.
What are the effects of the steroid Boldenone Undecylenate?
It is a derivative of testosterone, which exhibits strong anabolic and moderately androgenic properties. The undecylenate ester greatly extends the activity of the drug. As with all steroids, this compound shows a marked ability for increasing red blood cell production. Equipoise is not a rapid mass builder, but will provide a slow but steady gain of strength and quality muscle mass. The most positive effects of this drug are seen when it is used for longer cycles, usually lasting at least 10 weeks in length. So, in recent years this compound has become a favorite among athletes
What is WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency)?
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is the international independent organization created in 1999 to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against doping in sport in all its forms at the international level. The Agency is composed and funded equally by the Olympic movement and governments of the world. Its key activities include scientific research, education, out-ofcompetition testing, development of anti-doping capacities and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code.
Why is the use of anabolic steroids banned by all major sporting bodies?
Anabolic steroids are used in medicine to stimulate bone growth and appetite, induce male puberty. They also produce increases in muscle mass and physical strength. So it is banned by all major sporting bodies like WTA, ITF, International Olympic Committee, FIFA, UEFA, the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the European Athletic Association and the National Football League.
What exactly is an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV) ?
Determination that one of the following rule violations listed in the Code has occurred: *The presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete's bodily specimen; *Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method; *Refusing, or failing without compelling justification, to submit to sample collection after notification, as authorized in applicable antidoping rules or otherwise evading sample collection; *Violation of applicable requirements regarding athlete availability for out-of-competition testing, including failure to provide whereabouts information and missed tests which are declared based on reasonable rules; *Tampering, or attempting to tamper, with any part of doping control; *Possession of prohibited substances and methods; *Trafficking in any prohibited substance or prohibited method; *Administration or attempted administration of a prohibited substance or prohibited method to any athlete, or assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, covering up or any other type of complicity involving an anti-doping rule violation or any attempted violation.
What is a WADA-Accredited Laboratory?
Anti-doping laboratory accredited by WADA in compliance with the International Standard for Laboratories, applying test methods and processes to provide evidentiary data for the detection and, if applicable, quantification of a threshold substance on he Prohibited List in urine and other biological samples. WADA has been responsible for accrediting and re-accrediting antidoping laboratories since 2004.
Why are the doping tests being conducted so regularly in the sports fraternity?
As various anabolic steroids simulate testosterone in building the muscle mass and physical strength, they are thus frequently abused in different types of professional sports to enhance strength, physique & develop endurance to attain a competitive edge or to assist in recovery from injury. Such use is prohibited by the rules of the governing bodies of many sports. So, a diverse array of tests are designed to detect and deter performance-enhancing drugs abuse by competitors in various sports & every year over 100,000 drug tests are conducted worldwide at a whooping cost of $30 million.
What is a steroid cycle?
A steroid cycle is a term commonly used to describe a period in time where an individual intakes anabolic steroids. The longer the body's endogenous supply of testosterone is suppressed, the harder it will be for their hypothalamus/pituitary/testicular axis (HPTA) to recover. More serious health risks are associated with longer cycles.
How is T/E ratio measured?
T/E ratios are detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry according to the guidelines of the International Olympic Committee. Measurement of the ratio of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) in urine has been used as an indication of ‘natural' steroid supplementation for over a decade. The direct measurement of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of testosterone and epitestosterone by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) has been proposed recently & is expected to resolve a number of issues regarding unusual metabolism due to either genetic disposition or attempts to avoid detection of abuse.
What sort of T/E ratio is indicative of steroid abuse?
The T/E ratio greater than 4:1 in the urine of a person indicates steroid abuse unless there is evidence to the contrary i.e. unless there is convincing evidence that this ratio is due to a physiological or pathological condition. In case the T/E ratio is found to be greater than 4:1, it is mandatory for relevant medical authorities to conduct an investigation before the sample is declared positive. A T/E ratio higher than 6:1 was used to be considered as proof of abuse in the past; however, cases of naturally occurring higher T/E ratios have been described.
Why is epitestosterone banned by many sporting authorities even though it does not enhance athletic performance in any way?
Since administration of epitestosterone is frequently done to mask a high level of testosterone if the standard T/E ratio test is used. As such, epitestosterone is banned by many sporting authorities being a well known masking agent for testosterone.Thus a wide range of diagnostic tests have been developed to determine the testosterone to epitestosterone ratio in athletes who are accused of doping.
What is Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF)?
Report from a WADA-accredited laboratory or other WADA-approved testing entity that identifies in a doping control sample the presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers or evidence of the use of a prohibited method. An adverse analytical finding does not necessarily lead to an anti-doping rule violation, since an athlete may have a Therapeutic Use Exemption for this particular substance. An adverse analytical finding may also correspond to a measurement performed on an athlete as part of a longitudinal study.
What is the window detection for steroid usage?
The duration the drugs last in someone's system vary greatly depending on the amount consumed, a person's metabolism, other physical characteristics, and whether or not someone chronically uses the drug. Lastly, there is no "set" amount of time that we screen for - it all depends on the individual.
Some of the factors that can influence steroid detection times may be:
- Fluid intake
- Tolerance to the substance intake
- Frequency of intake
- Duration of intake
- Body fat
- Potency of steroids used
- Dosage of steroids used
What is Stacking?
"Stacking" of steroids is a practice used that incorporates the administration of two or more steroids or illicit muscle building agents simultaneously. Stacking will often gradually increase the amount used over the course of weeks and then taper the use toward the end of the cycle (duration of time used). There are numerous reasons why bodybuilders stack drugs. The principal reason is probably effectiveness. Combining multiple drugs into the same stack often produces what's called a synergistic effect. In simple terms this means that each drug in the stack magnifies or boosts the effectiveness of the others.