Steroids

Overview

Steroids are chemicals, or hormones that the human body naturally produces. These hormones help the cells, tissues and organs perform their jobs well. Everyone needs a healthy number and balance of hormones to propagate and grow. Steroids may also refer to man-made medicines and the two main types are corticosteroids and anabolic-androgenic steroids, or anabolic.

Corticosteroids are medicines that help fight inflammation. It is prescribed to manage asthma, arthritis, some autoimmune diseases and skin conditions and some forms of cancer.1
Correctly termed anabolic-androgenic steroids, this group of drugs is man-made male sex hormone or testosterone. Anabolic refers to muscle building, while androgenic pertains to increase male sex characteristics. A doctor may prescribe anabolic steroid for males who do not produce enough testosterone, or for those who lose muscle mass due to other health conditions.

Athletes and bodybuilders use anabolic steroids to enhance their performances and bulk-up. Abuse of anabolic could happen as users get a different kind of “high” with their improved body, strength and performance. Little do they realize that anabolic steroids when abused can result in long term damage to the user.

Steroid Screening Cut-off and Detection Time

Testosterone in the body may be endogenous (naturally produced in the body) or exogenous (taken as supplements or drugs). To distinguish the two, the T/E ratio is employed. The average, normal ratio is usually 1, varying on either lower or higher.

The drugs to test are nandrolone and testosterone with a cut-off level of 2 ng/ml and a detection period of at least 4 days and up to 6 months. Each brand and type of anabolic steroids has its own detection period. This test is more specific and called steroids/sports drug testing.

DEA Steroid Drug Classification

Under the 1970 Controlled Substance Act (CSA) the group of anabolic steroids is a Schedule III drug. Drugs in this schedule have less abuse potential than those listed under Schedules I and II. Anabolic steroids are currently accepted in the United States for medical use in treatment. Abuse of this drug could lead to high psychological dependence and low or moderate physical dependence.

Steroid Drug Type

Anabolic steroids are synthetically manufactured testosterone hormones to help in building muscles by increasing nitrogen retention and synthesis of protein. They mimic the effects of natural hormones and helps in building up appetite and stimulating bone growth. In recent years different types of anabolic steroids (hormones) were introduced. Aside from testosterone, some of these synthetically manufactured hormones are:

  • Oxymetholone
  • Methyltestosterone
  • Fluoxymesterone
  • Nandrolone
  • Oxandrolone
  • Methenolone
  • Mesterolone
  • Trenbolone
  • Stanozolo
  • Clenbuterol

Forms and Routes of Steroid Administration

Anabolic steroids are available in a whole range of forms from tablets to gels. They are also available in capsules, creams, transdermal patches, liquid drops, oil or water-based injectable solutions.

  • Oil/water-based injectable – Steroids are more often used through injections, either by injecting the drug intravenously (blood stream) or intramuscularly (into the muscle). This process is done at least three times per week.
  • Pills – Usually in capsule forms and gel tablets and taken on a daily basis.
  • Creams – Are the least intrusive as they are rubbed directly onto the user’s skin
  • Transdermal Patches – Are attached to the user’s arm or buttocks for a steady release of steroids.

The doses taken may be 10 to 100 times higher than the prescribed doses to treat medical conditions. This drug is mostly taken in complex patterns to avoid side effects. These patterns are:

  • Stacking – where the user combines two or more different kinds of steroids
  • Cycling – where the users takes steroids for a period of time, stops, and then starts again
  • Pyramiding – where the user slowly but dedicatedly increase the frequency or dose of the steroids until he reaches a peak amount, and then tapers off gradually

However, even if used in any of these patterns, there is no evidence that these practices reduce negative effects of the steroids.4

Steroid Brand Names

  • Anadrol
  • Anavar
  • Andriol
  • Dianabol
  • Halotestin
  • Primobolan
  • Proviron
  • Turinabol
  • Winstrol
  • Clenbuterol
  • Deca Durabolin
  • Sustanon 250
  • Testosterone Cypionate
  • Testosterone Enanthate

Uses of Amphetamines

Only a small percentage of anabolic steroids are legally approved for human or animal consumption. Testosterone and most of its derivative compounds, oxandrolone, nandrolone, ethyltestosterone and decanoate are the primary anabolic steroids that are currently, medically prescribed in the United States for the treatment of:

  • Testosterone deficiency
  • Delayed puberty
  • Anemia
  • Breast cancer
  • Tissue-wasting due to AIDS

Anabolic steroids such as boldenone, trenbolone and mibolerone are used in veterinary medicine.

Steroid Street Names

  • Juice
  • Gym candy
  • Pumpers
  • Andro
  • Stackers
  • Arnolds
  • A’s
  • Balls and Bulls
  • Weight Trainers

Effects and Symptoms of Steroid Abuse

Steroids have androgenic and anabolic effects. Androgenic effects include masculinizing effects such as increased facial hair, deepening of voice, and enlargement of some male sex glands. Anabolic effects include increase in muscle mass, calcium in the bones and some internal organs. Steroid hormones generally stimulate some parts of a muscle cell and this stimulation increases protein production and some chemicals linked with the increase in muscle mass.5

Short Term Effects of Steroid Use for Men

  • Damage to the heart
  • Reduced sperm count
  • Difficulty or pain while urinating
  • Impotence

Long Term Effects of Steroid Use for Men

  • Development of breasts
  • Liver disease or liver cancer
  • Shrinking of the testicles

Short Term Effects of Steroid Use for Women

  • Excessive hair growth
  • Breast reduction

Long term Effects of Steroid Use for Women

  • Enlarged clitoris
  • Deepened voice
  • Abnormal menstrual cycles

Physical Short Term Effects of Steroid Use for Both Men and Women

  • Fluid retention
  • Acne
  • Increased blood pressure and cholesterol levels
  • Headaches
  • Reduced sexual functioning
  • Increase in muscle size
  • Swelling of feet and ankles
  • Insomnia Rapid weight gain
  • Improved appetite
  • Improved healing

Physical Long Term Effects of Steroid Use for Both Men and Women

  • Premature heart attacks and strokes
  • Heart attacks
  • Cardiovascular, liver, and reproductive organ damage
  • Clotting disorders
  • Blood clotting difficulties
  • Stunted growth in adolescents
  • Injury to tendons, and muscles is increased
  • Reduced sexual functioning
  • Increase in muscle size
  • HIV/AIDS , cellulitis,abscesses, and other bacterial infections can occur when injecting

Special Conditions

Anabolic steroids are only prescribed for certain medical conditions such as stimulating bone growth and appetite, inducing puberty in boys, and treating chronic muscle wasting conditions. Anabolic and androgens are also used to treat:

However, since mid-1940’s, anabolic steroids have been used by amateur and professional athletes, Olympic athletes and body builders to enhance their physical appearance, strength and performance. Because of the numerous short and long term effects of anabolic steroids, people with the following conditions or have a history of such conditions should not take the drug.

  • Mental disorders
  • Heart conditions
  • Blood clotting and other related disorders
  • Stroke
  • Liver diseases
  • Kidney diseases

Those who are trying to conceive, or are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take anabolic steroids.

Steroid Dependence

People who use anabolic steroids can become psychologically and physically dependent on them. Each user has his own unique experience when using steroids and coming off the drugs. When a regular user stops using, he can exhibit signs of withdrawal that can be linked to addiction. Symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Mood swings
  • Restlessness
  • Insomnia
  • Loss of appetite
  • Craving for steroids
  • Depression
  • Diminished sex drive

In some cases, severe depression drove users to suicidal thoughts and actions. Research indicates that depressive symptoms may last for up to a year after the user stops taking anabolic steroids.6

History of Steroids

The yet unnamed anabolic steroid had its beginnings in the 1930’s when a team of scientists created a synthetic testosterone to treat men who lack the hormone for normal development, growth and sexual functions. During WWII, it became evident that testosterone could be utilized to help malnourished soldiers recover from loss of weight and improve their general performance.

Athletes began to use steroids as a performance-enhancing drug after the war. During the 1956 Olympics, Soviet wrestlers and other athletes performed exceptionally well. Upon learning that those athletes were on testosterone, Dr. Zeigler, an American doctor, created a much-improved version of the drug and called it anabolic steroids.2

Anabolic steroids were used not only by Olympic athletes but by high school and collegiate athlete, as well as professional sports players. The performance-enhancing drug was finally banned by the International Olympic Committee in 1975. This was the kick-off point of black market sale of anabolic steroids.

In 1988 the Anti-Drug Abuse Act included federal regulations on the sale and possession of steroids. Two years later, the Anabolic Steroid Enforcement Act of 1990 was passed by Congress. This act classifies anabolic steroids under the Controlled Substances Act.