Opiates/Morphine

Opiates / Morphine- Drug Facts:

Opiates, like Morphine, are used for pleasure and pain relief.  Morphine was first discovered in Germany by a pharmacist in 1804 by the name of “morphium.” Some opiates come from the Asian Poppy plant.  The plant produces resin, the resin produces opium, and codeine and morphine are derived from the opium.  The Asian Poppy produces a milky latex fluid found in the unripe seed pod of the opium poppy (papaver somnniferum plant).

Opiates are drugs derived from poppy flowers.  Morphine is from the mature poppy head of the flower.  Morphine is, reportedly, the most powerful pain reliever available to physicians and healthcare professionals today.  Opiates are uniformly effective on the Central Nervous System (CNS), and act as a depressant and narcotic analgesic.  Opiates are in a class of drugs such as Heroin, Opium, and Morphine. When opiates are introduced into the system, endorphins activate the opiate receptors in the brain. Endorphins play a key role in maintaining respiration, nausea, pain fluctuation, vomiting, and the regulation of hormones in our bodies. There are natural opiates and semi-synthetic opinoids.  Opium contains many alkaloids, but only one group of alkaloids; the phemanthrene alkaloids are capable of converting the narcotic substances into morphine, codeine, and thebaine (the natural opiates).

Description & Overview:
- Natural Opiates
– Schedule II Drug
– Class A Controlled Drug
– Codeine & Hydrocodone Combined with Acetaminophen or Aspirin
– Schedule II Drugs cannot be Called into the Pharmacy
– Available in Oral Solutions
– Suppositories
– Sustained-Release Capsules
– Tablets
– Morphine Patches
– Semi-Synthetic Drug Derived from Morphine
– Dilaudid
– Chemical Compounds – C 18 H 21 N O 3 Mol.
– Mass: 299.364
– Morphine-3-Glucuronide
– Morphine-6-Glucuronide

Major Biologically Active Opiates Discovered in Opium are:
- Morphine
– Codein
– Thebaine
– Papaverine
– Morphine (Most of the mu agonists contain)
– Methyl (CH-3-) Group on the Nitrogen
– White Crystalline Powder
– Listed as a Narcotic Analgesic
– Pain Reliever

Brand & Generic Names:
– MS-Contin
– Oramorph SR
– Roxanol

Breakdown of Illegal Users:
10% of the US Population Abuses Opiates Within Their Lifetime
– Over Half Accidental Drug Deaths in US (1999 Survey) Caused by Heroine & Morphine
– Average User in 1998 was 21-Years-Old
– ½ a Million People Used Heroin at Least Once (2006 Survey)
– 2 ½ Million Americans had Abused Prescription Pain Killers (2007 Survey) To Get “High”
– 10% of High School Seniors Took Vicodin Without a Legal Prescription (2008 Survey) 2000-2005 Overdose Deaths Increased 500%  4,500 Deaths Nationwide
-Statistics Possibly “Underreported”

Used Illegally For:
Cheaper High Than Heroin
– Social Acceptance
– Trafficking Illegally
– Profit

Medically Used to Treat:
Pain
– Accident Victims
– Cancer Patients
-HIV/AIDS Pain Management
– Patients Recovering From Major Surgery
– Pain Associated With Kidney Stones
– Illness
– Trauma
– Chronic Back Pain
– Other Chronic Pain Conditions
– Suppressing Coughs
– Stopping Chronic Diarrhea

Street Names for Opiates / Morphine:

– Aunti
– Aunti Emma
– Big O
– Black Hash
– Black Russian
– Black Pill
– Black Stuff
– Black Tar
– Buddha
– China White
– Monkey
– Morph
– White stuff

Common Opiates:
Buprenophine
– Codine
– Fentanyl
– Heroine
– Hydrocodon
– Dydromorphone
– Dilaudid
– Meperidine
– Demerol
– Methadone
– Morphine
– Vicodine
– Oxycontin
– Lorcet
– Meperidine
– Methadone

Trade Names
- Narcan
– Nalone
– Narcanti

How Opiates – Morphine Affects the Brain:
- Attaches to Opioid Receptors
– Attaches to Spinal Cord
– Attaches to the Gastrointestinal Tract
– Central Nervous System Depressant
– Physical Dependence
– Psychological Dependence
– Cognitive Deficits
– Long Acting m Opioid Receptor Agonist
– Potent Central Analgesic
– Sedative
– Antitussive Action
– Alters Perception
– Dissociative Effect
– Respiratory Depression
– Blockage of Respiratory Centers to pCO2
– Increased Parietal Glucose Metabolism

Short-Term Effects of Using Methadone:
Constipation
– Decreased Appetite
– Difficulty Breathing
– Labored Breathing
– Drowsiness
– Dry Mouth
– Euphoria
– Blurred Vision
– Fatigue
– Feeling Lightheaded
– Hives
– Interruption In Menstrual Cycle
– Itching
– Nausea
– Red Rash
– Reduced Sex Drive
– Respiratory Depression
– Slowed Breathing
– Sweating
– Vomiting
– Weakness
– Weight Loss
– Irregular Heartbeat
– Tachycardia
– May Be Life-Threatening
– Respiratory Depression
– Shallow Breathing
– Hallucinations
– Confusion
– Impaired Judgment
– Drowsiness
– Dizziness
– Dry Mouth
– Sedation
– Mood Swings
– Euphoria
– Dysphoria
– Depressed Reflexes
– Chest Pain
– Light Headed
– Fainting
– Headaches
– Nausea
– Facial Flushing
– Constipation
– Muscle Flaccidity
– Pupil Constriction
– Dizziness
– Dry Mouth
– Fatigue
– Headache
– Nausea
– Thirst

Long-Term Effects of Using Methadone:
Addiction
– Bone Damage
– Blood Damage
– Bone Pain
– Brain Damage
– Comma
– Constipation
– Convulsions
– Death
– Depression
– Emotional Instability
– Facial Flushing
– Itchy Skin
– Hot Flashes
– Kidney Damage
– Liver Damage
– Mood Disturbances
– Muscle Flaccidity
– Muscle Pain
– Pupil Constriction
– Renal Failure
– Stupor
– Sweaty Skin
– Tolerance
– Cardiovascular Effect
– Nauseant
– Sedative
– Respiratory Depressant
– Miotic

Morphine – Opiates Can:
– Produce Drug Dependence
– Produce Physiological Drug Dependence
– Watery Eyes
– Nausea
– Diarrhea
– Runny Nose
– Cramps
-Loss of Appetite
– Dysphoria
– Muscle Aches
– Anxiety
– Restlessness
– Irritation
– Dilation of the Pupils
– Tremors
– Chills & Sweating
– Sensitivity to Pain
– Piloerection
– Insomnia
– Tachycardia