Amphetamine

Amphetamines- Drug Facts:

Amphetamines are categorized as stimulants.  The components were found in 1997 within two species of bushes in Texas.  The bushes were known as the acacia bushes.  Methamphetamine (Methedrine) is specifically referred to as amphetamines.  Illegal Methamphetamine (Meth) is made from many common over the counter drugs (cold tablets), drain cleaner, brake fluid and liquid Anhydrous Ammonia (among other ingredients).  Stimulants speed up the systems housed in the body.  Some amphetamines are prescribed legally by physicians to treat ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and ADD (attention deficit disorder).  Amphetamines stimulate the Central Nervous System.  Stimulates can look like power or pills. Amphetamines and their various salts easily dissolve in water.  Other forms of the drug are clear in color and form chunky crystals (crystal meth).  Methamphetamines can also take the form of brightly colored tablets.  Amphetamines have many of the same effects as cocaine, however the body’s reaction to this class of stimulates is slower, and the duration lasts longer.

Description & Overview:
C9H13N
– Molecular Weight = 135.21
– Amphetamines Have a Phenethylamine Core
– Methamphetamine Hydrochloride
– (+)-alpha-Methylbenzeneethanamine
– D;-alpha-methylphenethylamine, 1-phenyl-s-aminopropane, beta-aminopropylbenzene
– Racemic desoxy-nor-ephedrine, Acetadron, Allodene, Adipan, Sympatedrine
– Psychedrine, Isomyn, Isoamyne, Mecodrin, Norephedrane, Novydrine, Elastonon
– Ortedrine, Phenedrine, Profamina, Propsiamine, Sympamine, Simpatedrin

Breakdown of Illegal Users
850,000 Americans Age 12+ Have Abused at Least Once
– 1.2% of 8th Graders
– 1.5% of 10th Graders
– 1.2% of 12th Graders

Methods of Use:
- Injecting
– Snorting
– Smoking
– Oral Ingestion

Medically Used to Treat:
ADHD
– ADD
– Asthma
– Depression
– Narcolepsy
– Psychiatric Depression

Used Illegally For:
Increased Energy
– Decreased Appetite
– Excitability
– Stimulating Effects
– Weight Loss

Some Street Names for Amphetamines:
Bennies
– Black Beauties
– Chalk
– Crack
– Crystal Meth
– Glass
– Ice
– Meth
– Poor Man’s Cocaine
– Speed
– Uppers

How Amphetamines Affects the Brain:
Affects the Central Nervous System
– Dopamine Transporter Abnormalities
– Spectroscopic Abnormalities
– Motor Deficits
– Memory Deficits
– Increased Parietal Glucose Metabolism
– Cognitive Deficits
– Relative Glucose Metabolism = Impaired Mood
– Enlargement in Parietal Volume
– Deficit in Hippocampal Volume
– Basal Ganglia Volume Increased
– Motor Memory Deficits
– Interference with Verbal Fluency
– Interference with Fine Motor Performance

Short-Term Effects of Using Cocaine:
Dilation of the Pupils
– Dry Mouth
– Feelings of Happiness
– Feelings of Power
– Irritability
– Nervousness
– Palpitations
– Arrhythmias
– Restlessness

Long-Term Effects of Using Amphetamines:
Anorexia Nervosa
– Auditory & Visual Hallucinations
– Convulsions
– Death
– Drug Dependency
– Erratic Behavior
– Emotional Instability
– Exhaustion
– HIV/AIDS & Hepatitis (Injecting the Drug)
– High Blood Pressure
– Increased Body Temperature
– Negative Effects on ALL Organs in the Body
– Insomnia
– May Cause Lasting Brain Damage
– Mood Disturbances
– Nightmares
– Paranoia
– Picking at the Skin
– Preoccupation with One’s Own Thoughts
– Psychosis Akin to Schizophrenia
– Sadness & Unhappiness
– Sever Dental Problems
– Social Disability
– Tremors
– Violent Behavior
– Weight Loss

Links:
http://teens.drugabuse.gov/facts/facts_mj1.php
http://www.nida.nih.gov/drugpages/methamphetamine.html
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2670101